Wednesday, January 20, 2010

बदल रही है दुनिया...!


दुनिया तेजी से बदल रही है। अब चाहे वह पुरानी और नई परंपराओं की बात हो... उपभोक्ता संस्कृति की बात हो... शिक्षा, व्यापार, पर्यावरण या इनमें सरकार की भूमिका की बात हो... और या मीडिया व दूसरे सामाजिक सरोकारों की बात हो। बदलाव है... और महसूस भी हो रहा है। कोपेनहेगन में हुए शिखर सम्मेलन में खूब विचार-विमर्श हुआ... इस बदलाव पर कुछ नियंत्रण करने का। लेकिन मामला जमा नहीं। कोशिश जारी है। आगरा से बृज खंडेलवाल ने एक बिंदुवार अध्ययन भेजा है। एक नजर डालिए...

शुभकामनाएं...
--धर्मेंद्र कुमार
The Rise and Fall of Consumer Cultures

The world’s richest 500 million people (roughly 7 percent of the world’s population) are responsible for 50 percent of the world’s carbon dioxide emissions, while the poorest 3 billion are responsible for just 6 percent.

Business-as-usual is projected to lead to a 4.5 degree Celsius increase by 2100. Even if all countries stuck to their most ambitious proposals to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, temperatures would still go up by 3.5 degrees Celsius.

To produce enough energy over the next 25 years to replace most of what is supplied by fossil fuels, the world would need to build 200 square meters of solar photovoltaic panels and 100 square meters of solar thermal every second, and 24 3-megawatt wind turbines every hour nonstop during this period.

A study of British children found that they could identify more Pokémon characters than common wildlife species. And an investigation of US two-year olds found that although they could not identify the letter M, many could identify the M-shaped golden arches of McDonald’s restaurants.

In 2006, some 83 percent of the world’s population had access to television and 21 percent had access to the Internet.

Two pet German shepherd dogs use more resources in a year than the average Bangladeshi.

Traditions Old and New

72 percent of Americans say religious beliefs play at least a “somewhat important” role in their thinking about environmental stewardship and climate change.

Women with no schooling worldwide average 4.5 children each. Women with some primary school average 3 children, and those who complete at least one year of secondary school average 1.9 children. After 1–2 years of college, fertility drops to 1.7 children, well below population-maintaining “replacement” fertility.

Several of the world’s longest-lived peoples eat just 1,800–1,900 calories a day, no processed foods, and minimal animal products. By comparison, the average American consumes 3,830 calories a day.

Education’s New Assignment: Sustainability

US marketers now spend $17 billion annually targeting children, up from $100 million in 1983.

US children now spend more time in front of television screens than in any other activity besides sleeping: about 40 hours a week outside of school. Nineteen percent of US babies under the age of one have a television in their bedroom.

Some 67.5 percent of the food served in Rome’s schools is organic, 44 percent comes from “bio-dedicated” food chains that focus exclusively on organic products, 26 percent is local, 14 percent is certified “fair trade,” and 2 percent comes from social cooperatives that employ former prisoners or that work land confiscated from the Mafia.

Business and Economy: Management Priorities

In the United States, the Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) neared its per capita peak in 1975, at a time when per capita GDP was about half what it is today.

A study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research found that if the United States were to shift to western European patterns of time use, US energy use could decline 20 percent even without changes in technology.

In 1900, every $1 spent on a typical US foodstuff item yielded an estimated 40¢ for the farmer, with the rest split between input and distribution. Today, only some 7¢ of every retailed food dollar goes to the farmer, rancher, or grower, while 73¢ goes to distribution.

Government’s Role in Design

Australia’s “ban the bulb” policy is projected to save 4 million tons of greenhouse gas emissions annually by 2012 and also bring sizable economic savings.

Ireland’s levy on plastic shopping bags has reduced usage by 90 percent.

The United States will spend $65 on military costs for each $1 devoted to climate programs in fiscal year 2010.

The travel demand management program TravelSmart in Perth, Australia, led annual patronage on the city’s rail system to increase from 7 million to 110 million in 17 years, moving public transport from 5 to 10 percent of work journey trips taken.

Media: Broadcasting Sustainability

Spain’s government voted to ban commercials on public television stations starting in 2010.

In 2008, spending on advertising exceeded $271 billion in the United States and $643 billion worldwide.

Only one in every 1,000 marketing dollars in the US is spent on broadcast public service announcements that market for the public good—and only a tiny fraction of that is spent on sustainability messaging.

The Power of Social Movements

The average American puts in 200–300 more hours at work each year than the average European.

Western Europeans now live longer than Americans. They are also a little more than half as likely on average to suffer from chronic illnesses such as heart disease, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes after the age of 50.

US researchers found that for every 1 percent increase in unemployment, US mortality declined by half a percent.

A 2003 study found that per capita emissions in two German ecovillageswere 28 and 42 percent, respectively, of the national average.
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